His mother named Raudhah, a wealthy woman who comes from a family Sidoresmo Pesantren settlement Wonokromo Surabaya. His father named KH. Mas Achmad Marzoeqi, a pioneer of Islam, a renowned religious scholars of his time in East Java. He comes from noble lineage Astatinggi Sumenep, Madura. He was known as imams and preachers in mosques remain Ampel, a respectable position at the time.
Passed his childhood with his father to study religion in itself. In addition, he also studied at Sidoresmo Pesantren settlement, with Kiai Muhammad Taha as a teacher. In 1906, when Mas Mansur was ten years old, he was sent by his father to boarding school Demangan, Bangkalan, Madura. There, he examines the Qur’an and studying the book of Alfiyah to Kiai Khalil ibn Malik. Not long ago he learned there about two years, Kia Khalil dies, so Mas Mansur left the boarding school and returned to Surabaya.
Demangan home from boarding school in 1908, his parents are advised to perform the pilgrimage in Mecca, and learning that originated in Kiai Mahfudz from Termas boarding school in Central Java. After about four years studying there, the political situation in Saudi forced him to move to Egypt. Ruler of Saudi Arabia, Sharif Hussen, issued instructions that foreigners should leave Mecca in order not involved the dispute. At first Mansoer Mas father would not let into Egypt, because the image of Egypt (Cairo) was less good in the eyes of his father, namely as a place of fun and the immoral. However, Mas Mansoer continued to carry out his wish without the permission of their parents. Bitterness and hardship because they do not get money from her parents for tuition fees and living expenses should be lived. Therefore, he often fasted on Monday and Thursday and get money and food from the mosques. This situation lasted less than one year, and after that his parents sent him back the funds to study in Egypt.
In Egypt, he studied at Al-Azhar University in Shaykh Ahmad Maskawih. The atmosphere of Egypt at that time was intense, incessant build and foster a spirit of nationalism and renewed awakening. Many leaders foster a spirit of Egyptian people, either through mass media and speeches. Mas Mansoer also take advantage of this condition by reading the writings are scattered in the mass media and listen to his speeches. He was in Egypt for approximately two years. Before returning to their homeland, first he stopped first at Mecca during one year, and in 1915 he returned to Indonesia.
On his return from studying in Egypt and Mecca, he married the daughter of Haji Arif Siti Zakijah who lived not far from his home. From the results of his marriage, they were blessed with six children, namely Nafiah, Ainoerrafiq, Aminah, Mohammad Noeh, Ibrahim and-Loek Loek. In addition to marry Siti Zakijah, she was also married to Halima. He lives with second wife did not last long, only two years, due in 1939 Halimah’s death.